He was succeeded by Akbar, the second Mughal Emperor, who also reigned over India from 1559 to 1586. Akbar I, Akbar II and Akbar III all reigned over a period of nearly thirty years, during which time they expanded their domains, tried to make their empire into a large empire and tried to defeat the Swedish traveller, Christopher Columbus. Akbar’s great achievements during this reign helped him gain the title of “the Serengheti king”.
The history of Akbar is significant because it proves that while he ruled over a large area, yet retained a firm control over the people, especially the Hindus. Akbar’s most important achievement during his rule was the defeat of the Portuguese at Akbar’s port in the second battle of Mahabaratha. The city of Vijayanand was entirely under the influence of Akbar and the locals, especially the Hindus, did not hesitate to cooperate with him. Akbar’s army gained much prestige for its victories at various places including Akbar’s port, Fatehpur Sikri and finally at Chittorgarh.
During his reign, Akbar exerted an extremely good reign over the Hindu community, even during the period when there were numerous rulers in India, each claiming to be the rightful ruler of the Hindu religion. Some historians have indicated that there was some problem between Akbar and his relatives in the Hindu religion community. This made Akbar take steps to appease the Hindu community by allowing them to carry on their religion freely. However, there is no proof that this happened. In fact, Akbar may have acted in a way that suited his interest, which is in accordance with the policies of the maharajas.
Some historians believe, that Akbar’s policy of tolerance helped pave the way for the establishment of a united Pakistan. The maharajas, along with the radians, had always been at odds with the Hindu community. For example, the radians were not allowed to participate in the hijra festivities, which happened regularly after Akbar’s time. However, they had been permitted to offer prayers at the kais only. Akbar’s tolerance may have encouraged this policy and led to the establishment of a separate Hindu nation- the state of Pakistan.
The origin of Akbar can be traced back to the year 627 when the Mughal Emperor Jahangir executed his brother Akbar for not participating in the fight against the Qutub Shah of Iran. This initiated the rise of Akbarism in India as the leaders of the Muslim community demanded that Akbar is given a posthumous award of a knighthood. Akbar was given the honor of knighthood, and he became widely respected as a leader of the Muslims in India. He established the concept of muharram or a holy month in the Indian calendar.
The Akbar years are significant in the history of India as the first decade after Akbar’s murder brought the tide of democracy in the country. After the defeat of the British at the hands of General Allen, the country was led by an interim government headed by Sardar Singh II. Akbar played a key role in the formation of this new constitutional system. It was this period of new freedoms for the Indian Muslims that Akbar earned his knighthood. There are various stories related to Akbar and his achievements. Some historians give credit to Sardar Singh for Akbar’s appointment as the princeps of Sikkim and Gujarat respectively.
In spite of being a prince, Akbar was allowed to assume the title of king by his subjects when he travelled to India to help his allies during the independence of India. Akbar remained popular among the people of India even after his return as the king of Sikkim. He enjoyed immense support from the Hindus and showed them great tolerance towards the presence of the Muslims in their state. This is one of the reasons that the Akbar raisins played such an important role in the evolution of the economy of the state of Sikkim.
The significance of Akbar in the history of India cannot be ignored. He established a balance in the society by maintaining peace with the Hindu community and establishing laws that were adapted from the Hindu code. It is also said that Akbar contributed greatly to the development of the Punjabi language. Akbar’s legacy remains strong even today as all the khans and bars of Punjab are ardent votaries of Akbar.